What is the nature and power of Communion?

Setting down the path of developing a new communion ceremony, we are immediately confronted by looming, insistent questions that must be addressed before we can proceed further: What is the nature of Communion? And wherein lies its power?

A provisional answer to the first question presents itself pretty quickly: Communion cannot be pinned down to a single definition, practice, or even name. To do so would be to impoverish its plenitude and its power. Communion, like so many elements of the Christian faith, is a singular but prismatic mediator of divine reality. It speaks more deeply and widely than mere words, and presents different facets and faces to different people in different times and different contexts. The great variation in contemporary practices of Communion mirrors the variation in Communion practices throughout church history, which in turn reflects the variation in the Gospel accounts of the Last Supper. And this variation, particularly as it is rooted in Gospel accounts that cannot be fully squared with one another to produce a single, self-identical story, should not be a cause of anxiety. This multiplicity reveals strength, not weakness. It means that our Communion practices radiate from a central, unifying reality that engages with and speaks to a wide variety of humanity in a wide variety of contexts.

Communion that is responsive to context and faithful to God’s reality

But the very variety of Communion practices – and undertaking the task of producing yet another variation – presents another sobering challenge: how do we create a Communion service that is both responsive to context and faithful to that underlying reality? How do we transform the Communion service in a way that continues to capture its transformative power for the people that we serve?

As I move forward with this project, my work will be guided by the following touchstones [and I heartily welcome your comments, suggestions and critiques here!]. A new service of communion must: be grounded in the Biblical witness; ignite the imaginations of the participants; speak to the cultural and personal realities of the participants’ lives; incorporate effective ritual practices; and mediate divine presence.

A brief word about each of these touchstones:

Grows out of the Biblical witness

A new Communion service must be fed by, be rooted in and grow out of the Gospel accounts and understandings of the Last Supper and of the ministry and identity of Jesus. This does not entail a search for a singular core that unites all accounts. Rather, it demands a searching out and a discerning of those facets and features of the accounts that speak most powerfully and salvifically to the cultural and personal realities of my congregants’ lives.

Ignites the participants’ imaginations

Poverty, trauma and oppression destroy the imagination. [And yes, affluence does as well, but in a different way.] They crush people’s ability to imagine a future that is fundamentally different from the deadening, hopeless present. Worship in general and Communion in particular must imbue participants with the power to envision, hope for and believe in a future that is genuinely new, grounded in the experience of a God who brings new life out of deathliness.

Speaks to cultural and personal realities

In my congregants’ context, the Communion service must acknowledge and speak to individual and community trauma. It must also do so in language, images, concepts and practices that appropriately and helpfully respond to and heal trauma, and that are grounded in and resonate with American Latino culture and the harsh realities of life in the inner city.

Incorporates effective ritual practices

For me, the most effective rituals are those which involve the whole person: body, mind and spirit. They do not simply preach a message; they also invite and require participants to experience and to affirm with their bodies the transformative truths that are being offered. This recognizes the central importance of the entire embodied process of taking communion: the decision to stand up to take communion, to arise and move forward towards the promise of new life; the slow, contemplative pilgrimage toward the altar, a pilgrimage that is both solitary and in solidarity with others; the opening of the hands, and therefore the heart, to gratefully receive the gifts of God; the ingestion of the gifts of God, the startlingly tactile experience of accepting and incorporating into oneself the indwelling reality of God; and the return to one’s place, the same and yet transformed.

Mediates Divine Presence

I believe that something real and transformative happens during Communion, something over which we who preside over Communion have no control but which the Communion service can and should create the sacred space for. The goal, the telos, of the Communion service is the communion of the participants with God. When that telos is achieved, the realities of participants are transformed, because the participants find union with God – or more precisely, they recognize, welcome and affirm the union that is already there and always being offered. Their lives are opened, and ever opened again, to the radical spiritual reality that God abides in them and they abide in God. And that God is precisely the God who creates new life where new life did not seem possible.

A revised Communion service that meets these criteria should be a faithful and transformative experience for participants.

What do you think? I welcome your reflections!

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The Challenge

Trauma is pandemic in the inner city community that I serve.  Physical and psychological abuse, rape and sexual abuse, beatings and shootings are commonplace. Community members sometimes name the acts of violence, but many of those acts are unspeakable or unspoken. The effects of this widespread trauma manifest themselves in individuals and throughout the community as hopelessness, numbness, an inability to trust or form close relationships, a shattered sense of self, and a disbelief in any secure ground of meaning or order.

Conversation and exploration at the intersection of trauma, theology and liturgy

Our worship services at Denver Inner City Parish do not currently address the crisis of trauma in our community – but they can and they must. Over the next year, I will be developing a theology and liturgy that: are grounded in the experiences and culture of my inner-city community; express – perhaps even rediscover – the Good News for traumatized persons and communities; and reshape worship as a safe and sacred place where trauma and its effects can be witnessed to, and where recovery from trauma can begin.

This blog is an integral part of that process. This is a place for conversation and exploration for all who study, worship or work at the intersection of trauma, theology and liturgy. My weekly blog postings will trace the course of my reading, theological and Biblical reflections, and liturgical writings. Please join the conversation! Our experiences will be richer for your participation.